Information and History

General Information on IAPSO

IAPSO is one of eight Associations of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG) which in turn is constituted within the International Science Council (ISC). Funding for ISC, its unions and associations, comes from member countries and their representative national agencies. Those countries which adhere to the statutes and by-laws of IUGG are Members of IAPSO.

IAPSO has the prime goal of "promoting the study of scientific problems relating to the oceans and the interactions taking places at the sea floor, coastal, and atmospheric boundaries insofar as such research is conducted by the use of mathematics, physics, and chemistry." IAPSO has addressed this goal through four fundamental objectives:

  1. Organize, sponsor, and co-sponsor formal and informal international forums permitting ready means of communication amongst ocean scientists throughout the world;
  2. Establish commissions, sub-committees, and organize commensurate workshops to encourage, stimulate, and coordinate new and advanced international research activities;
  3. Provide basic services significant to the conduct of physical oceanography, and
  4. Publish proceedings of symposia, meetings, and workshops, and fundamental references on the current state-of-the art and knowledge of physical oceanography.

These four objectives are carried out mainly through the efforts of the IAPSO Bureau (President, Past President, Secretary General and Treasurer) and the work of IAPSO's commissions with advice and oversight by the IAPSO Executive Committee. As the result of these efforts, IAPSO has organized and sponsored the only continuous international forums open to physical oceanographers around the world.

IAPSO maintains formal liaison with other scientific commissions and committees. These include the ISC's Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR), and UNESCO's Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC).

The authority of IAPSO is vested in member countries and exercised collectively by their delegates while meeting during the General Assembly. The President, two Vice Presidents, Secretary General, Treasurer and Executive Committee members are elected. Over the years, many internationally distinguished scientists have occupied, and continue to occupy, these offices.


 The history of IAPSO dates from the early years of the 20th century

Modern oceanography had its beginnings in the 18th century voyages of James Cook and others which carried scientific observers. Those voyages were followed by oceanographic cruises in the 19th century financed by various governments. Prince Albert I of Monaco had an early interest in the sea and had entered into a naval career as a young man, serving in both the French and Spanish Navies. After seeing the results of the recent voyages of the "Travailleur" and the "Talisman" in an exhibition in the Paris Museum, Prince Albert made a decision in 1884 to devote his time and resources to oceanography. Over the next 30 years he financed the construction or acquisition of a series of four vessels which he used for oceanographic cruises. Prince Albert's initial main collaborator was Baron Jules de Guerne, joined in 1887 by Dr. Jules Richard. Maurice Leger and Paul Portier assisted Prince Albert in developing scientific equipment. John Young Buchanan joined the group as an oceanographer after serving as chemist to the Challenger expedition. Prince Albert's last voyage ended in 1914 with the outbreak of World War I.

Prince Albert I always had a strong interest in international cooperation. In 1900, he had granted his patronage to the establishment of the short-lived International Marine Association which ended meetings after 1904. With the encouragement of Buchanan, he sought to establish a new international organization after the end of the war.

The opportunity for that arose when the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG) was established in Brussels, Belgium, on July 28, 1919 during the Constitutive Assembly of the International Research Council (predecessor of the International Council of Scientific Unions which was created in 1931). At the meeting in Brussels, a Section of Physical Oceanography was formed with Prince Albert of Monaco as its first President, Professor Horace Lamb of Great Britain as the Vice President, and Professor G. Magrini of Italy as the Secretary. Prince Albert I also founded a biological oceanography section in the International Union of Biological Sciences.

The first IUGG General Assembly was held in Rome, Italy, in May 1922. Prince Albert died in July of that year, and Vice- Admiral Sir John Perry of Great Britain, elected Vice President in Rome, carried on until the next General Assembly held in Madrid in 1924 where Professor Odon de Buen of Spain was elected President. Vice-Admiral Perry continued as Vice President (he died in 1926). Professor Magrini continued as Secretary. Both de Buen and Magrini were re-elected to their positions at the third IUGG General Assembly held in Prague, Czechoslovakia in 1927, where Dr. J. Schmidt of Denmark became Vice President.

At an Assembly in Seville, Spain, in 1929, held separately from IUGG, the Section of Physical Oceanography became the Association of Physical Oceanography. At the fourth IUGG General Assembly held the following year in Stockholm, Sweden, Prof. Martin Knudsen of Denmark was elected President of the Association, Ing. E. Fichot of France became Vice President, and Prof. Rolf Witting of Finland became Secretary. Profs. de Buen and Magrini continued as members of the Association's Executive Committee. At the fifth IUGG General Assembly held in Lisbon, Portugal, in 1933, Knudsen and Fichot were re-elected to their positions and Prof. J. Proudman of Great Britain became Secretary (he would hold that position until 1948). Magrini and de Buen continued on the Executive Committee (Magrini died in 1935).

General Assemblies were held in 1936 in Edinburgh, Scotland, and in September 1939 in Washington, DC. Prof. B. Helland-Hansen became President of the Association in 1936 and held that position until 1946. Due to the disruptions of World War II, the following General Assembly was not held until 1948 when it was in Oslo, Norway. In the meantime, Prof. H. U. Sverdrup became President, continuing in that position until 1951. In 1948 Prof. Proudman became Vice President and Prof H. Mosby of Norway became Secretary. At that General Assembly the Association became the International Association of Physical Oceanography (IAPO).

Prof. Proudman became President of the Association at the General Assembly in Brussels, Belgium in 1951, Professor Sverdrup continued as a member of the Executive Committee, and Prof. Mosby continued as Secretary until being elected President of the Association at the General Assembly in Rome, Italy in 1954. At that time Dr. R. H. Fleming of the United States became Secretary General. Profs. Proudman and Sverdrup continued as members of the Executive Committee (Prof. Sverdrup died in 1957). At the next General Assembly in Toronto, Canada, in 1957, Prof. Mosby continued as President, Prof B. Kullenberg of Sweden became Secretary, and Prof. Proudman continued on the Executive Committee for an additional term.

At the 1960 General Assembly in Helsinki, Finland, Dr. G. Deacon of Great Britain became President, and Prof. Kullenberg continued as Secretary. In 1963, at the General Assembly in Berkeley, United States, Prof. Roger Revelle became President, Prof. Kullenbery became a Vice President, and Prof. I. Hela of Finland became Secretary. After 1963 the interval between IUGG General Assemblies became four years.

In 1967, the IUGG and Association General Assemblies were held in Switzerland, but in different cities, the IUGG meeting in Bern, IAPO became the International Association for the Physical Sciences of the Ocean (IAPSO) and met in Sankt Gallen, and other Associations met in Basal and Zurich. Prof. Dietrich of Germany became the IAPSO President, and Dr. A. E. Maxwell of the United States became the Secretary (the Secretariat would remain in the United States from 1967 to 2007). In 1970, IAPSO held its General Assembly in Tokyo, Japan, separately from the IUGG General Assembly held in Moscow, Russia, in 1971, and held oceanographic sessions in conjunction with the IUGG General Assembly.

Successive IAPSO Presidents were Henri Lacombe (France 1970- 1975); Robert W. Stewart (Canada 1975-1979); Devendra Lal (India 1979-1983); Wolfgang Krauss (Germany 1983-1987); James J. O'Brien (United States 1987-1991); Robin D. Muench (United States 1991- 1995); L. Vere Shannon (South Africa 1995-1999, when he continued on the Executive Committee as Past President under revised statutes and by-laws which went into effect that year); Paola Rizzoli (United States/Italy 1999-2003); Shiro Imawaki (Japan 2003-2007); Lawrence A. Mysak (Canada 2007-2011); Eugene G. Morozov (Russian Federation 2011-2015); Denise Smythe-Wright (United Kingdom 2015-2019); Trevor McDougall was elected in 2019. The position of Secretary became Secretary General in 1979. Successive Secretaries/Secretaries General have been Eugene C. LaFond (United States 1970-1987); Robert E. Stevenson (United States 1987-1995); Fred E. Camfield (United States 1995-2007); Johan Rodhe (Sweden 2007-2015) and Stefania Sparnocchia (Italy elected in 2015).

At the General Assembly in Vienna, Austria, in 1991, IAPSO made a minor name change, revising it to the International Association for the Physical Sciences of the Oceans.

In 1999, there were revisions to the Statutes and By-Laws to increase the number of members on the Executive Committee, add the Past President as a member of the Executive Committee, and formally create a Nominations Committee.


 

IAPSO PRESIDENTS

IAPSO SECRETARIES / SECRETARIES GENERAL

 

1919-1922 S.A.S. Prince Albert 1er (Monaco)

1919-1930 Giovanni Magrini (Italy)

 

1924-1930 Odón de Buen (Spain)

 

1930-1936 Martin Knudsen (Denmark)

1930-1933 Rolf Witting (Finland)

 

1933-1948 Joseph Proudman (UK)

 

1936-1946 Bjørn Helland-Hansen (Norway)

 

1946-1951 Harald U. Sverdrup (Norway)

 

1948-1954 Håkon Mosby (Norway)

 

1951-1954 Joseph Proudman (UK)

 

1954-1960 Håkon Mosby (Norway)

1954-1957 Richard H. Fleming (USA)

 

1957-1963 Börje Kullenberg (Sweden)

 

1960-1963 George E.R. Deacon (UK)

 

1963-1967 Roger Revelle (USA)

1963-1967 Ilmo Hela (Finland)

 

1967-1970 Günter Dietrich (F.R. Germany)

1967-1970 Arthur E. Maxwell (USA)

 

1970-1975 Henri Lacombe (France)

1970-1987 Eugene C. LaFond (USA)

 

1975-1979 Robert W. Stewart (Canada)

 

1979-1983 Devendra Lal (India)

 

1983-1987 Wolfgang M. Krauss (F.R. Germany)

 

1987-1991 James J. O'Brien (USA)

1987-1995 Robert E. Stevenson (USA)

 

1991-1995 Robin D. Muench (USA)

 

1995-1999 L.Vere Shannon (South Africa)

1995-2007 Fred E. Camfield (USA)

 

1999-2003 Paola Rizzoli (Italy/USA)

 

2003-2007 Shiro Imawaki (Japan)

 

2007-2011 Lawrence Mysak (Canada)

2007-2015 Johan Rodhe (Sweden)

 

 

2011-2015 Eugene G. Morozov (Russia)

 

2015-2019 Denise Smythe-Wright (United Kingdom)

2015-2023 Stefania Sparnocchia (Italy)  

2019-2023 Trevor McDougall (Australia)

 

 


Milestone Assemblies and Executive Committee members

(1919 - 1951)

  1919 (July 28)

  Brussels, Belgium

   Constitutive Assembly of the International Research Council

The Section of Physical Oceanography, IUGG, was formed with the Following membership:

President

S.A.S The Prince of Monaco

Monaco

Vice-President

Prof. H. Lamb

UK

Secretary

Prof. G. Magrini

Italy

Members

 

Col. C. Close

UK

Capt. G. W. Littlehales

USA

1922 (May)

Rome, Italy

I IUGG General Assembly

President

S.A.S The Prince of Monaco*

Monaco                * died in July 1922

Vice-President

Vice-Adm. Sir J. Perry

UK

Secretary

Prof. G. Magrini

Italy

1924 (October)

Madrid, Spain

II IUGG General Assembly

President

Prof. O. de Buen

Spain

Vice-President

Vice-Adm. Sir J. Perry*

UK                       * died in April 1926

Secretary

Prof. G. Magrini

Italy

Members

    

Senator V. Volterra

Italy

Prof. H. Lamb

UK

Prof. L. Joubin

France

Capt. G. W. Littlehales

USA

Mr. H. G. Maurice

UK

1927 (September)

Prague, Czechoslovakia

III IUGG General Assembly

President

Prof. O. de Buen

Spain

Vice-President

Dr. J. Schmidt

Denmark

Secretary

Prof. G. Magrini

Italy

Members

    

Ing. E. Fichot

France

Senator V. Volterra

Italy

Prof. L. Joubin  

France

Capt. G. W. Littlehales

USA

Dr. H. G. Maurice

UK

1929 (May)

Seville, Spain

I International Oceanography Congress

The Section of Physical Oceanography became the Association of Physical Oceanography

     

1930 (August)

Stockholm, Sweden

IV IUGG General Assembly

President

Prof. M. Knudsen

Denmark

Vice-President

Ing. E. Fichot

France

Secretary

Prof. R. Witting

Finland

Members

     

Prof. O. de Buen

Spain

Vice-Adm. E. Caballero y Lastres

Peru

Prof. G. Magrini

Italy

Prof. L. Joubin  

France

Capt. G. W. Littlehales

USA

Dr. D. J. Matthews

UK

1933 (September)

Lisbon, Portugal

V IUGG General Assembly

Statutes of the Association

President

Prof. M. Knudsen

Denmark

Vice-President

Ing. E. Fichot

France

Secretary

Prof. J. Proudman

UK

Members

       

Vice-Adm. E. Caballero y Lastres

Peru

Dr. D. J. Matthews

UK

Prof. R. Witting

Finland

Prof. O. de Buen

Spain

Prof. B. Helland-Hansen

Norway

Prof. T. G. Thompson

USA)

Prof. L. Joubin*

France                         * died in 1935

Prof. G. Magrini**

Italy                          ** died in 1935

1936 (September)

Edinburgh, Scotland

VI IUGG General Assembly

President

Prof. B. Helland-Hansen

Norway

Vice-President

Ing. E. Fichot*

France                  * died in July 1939

Secretary

Prof. J. Proudman

UK

Members

       

Vice-Adm. E. Caballero y Lastres

Peru

Dr. D. J. Matthews

UK

Prof. T. G. Thompson

USA

Prof. R. Witting

Finland

Prof. M. Knudsen

Denmark

Dr. T. Okada

Japan

Dr. A. Ramalho

Portugal

Mr. P. M. van Riel

Netherlands

1939

September - Washington, USA

VII IUGG General Assembly

President

Prof. B. Helland-Hansen

Norway

Vice-President (Acting)

Prof. T. G. Thompson

USA

Secretary

Prof. J. Proudman

UK

Members

       

Vice-Adm. E. Caballero y Lastres

Peru

Dr. D. J. Matthews

UK

Prof. T. G. Thompson

USA

Prof. R. Witting

Finland

Prof. M. Knudsen

Denmark

Dr. T. Okada

Japan

Dr. A. Ramalho

Portugal

Mr. P. M. van Riel

Netherlands

1946 - 1948

No assembly took place after that of 1939 and until 1948 due to the upheavals of the Second World War 

President

Prof. H. U. Sverdrup

Norway

Secretary

Prof. J. Proudman

UK

Deputy Secretary

Prof. H. Mosby

Norway

Members

    

Dr. D. J. Matthews

UK

Prof. T. G. Thompson

USA

Prof. M. Knudsen

Denmark

Dr. A. Ramalho

Portugal

Mr. P. M. van Riel

Netherlands

1948

August - Oslo, Norway

VIII IUGG General Assembly

Statutes and ByLaws of the Association

The Association of Physical Oceanography became the International Association of Physical Oceanography (IAPO)

President

Prof. H. U. Sverdrup

Norway

Vice-Presidents

 

Prof. J. Proudman

UK

Dr. C. O'D. Iselin

USA

Secretary

Prof. H. Mosby

Norway

Deputy Secretary

Dr. R. H. Fleming

USA

Members

   

Dr. J. N. Carruthers

UK

Prof. H. Pettersson

Sweden

Capt. J. Rouch

France

Vice-Adm. J. W. Termijtelen

Netherlands

 


Milestone Assemblies and Executive Committee members

(1951 - 1983)

1951

August - Brussels, Belgium

IX IUGG General Assembly

President

Prof. J. Proudman

UK

Vice-Presidents

 

Dr. C. O'D. Iselin

USA

Capt. J. Rouch

France

Secretary

Prof. H. Mosby

Norway

Deputy Secretary

Dr. R. H. Fleming

USA

Members

   

Dr. J. N. Carruthers

UK

Prof. H. Pettersson

Sweden

Prof. H. Groen

Netherlands

Prof. H. U. Sverdrup

Norway

1954

September - Rome, Italy

X IUGG General Assembly

President

Prof. H. Mosby

Norway

Vice-Presidents

 

Dr. J. N. Carruthers

UK

Capt. J. Rouch

France

Secretary

Dr. R. H. Fleming*

USA                           * replaced by Dr. Kullenberg 1 November 1956

Deputy Secretary

Dr. B. Kullenberg

Sweden

Members

   

Prof. H. Groen

Netherlands

Prof. H. U. Sverdrup**

Norway                               ** died in 1957

Dr. G. Böhnecke

Germany

Prof. J. Proudman

UK

1957

September - Toronto, Canada

XI IUGG General Assembly

President

Prof. H. Mosby

Norway

Vice-Presidents

 

Dr. J. N. Carruthers

UK

Prof. V. G. Kort

USSR

Secretary

Dr. B. Kullenberg

Sweden

Deputy Secretary

Ing. M. Eyriès

France

Members

   

 

 

Dr. G. Böhnecke

Germany

Prof. J. Proudman

UK

Prof. K. Hidaka

Japan

Dr. H. B. Hachey

Canada

1960

July/August - Helsinki, Finland

XII IUGG General Assembly

President

Dr. G. Deacon

UK

Vice-Presidents

 

Prof. V. G. Kort

USSR

Prof. I. Hela

Finland

Secretary

Dr. B. Kullenberg

Sweden

Deputy Secretary

Ing. M. Eyriès

France

Members

   

Prof. K. Hidaka

Japan

Prof. G. Dietrich

Germany

Dr. H. B. Hachey

Canada

Dr. J. Lyman

USA

1963

August - Berkeley, U.S.A.

XIII IUGG General Assembly

President

Prof. R. Revelle

USA

Vice-Presidents

 

Dr. B. Kullenberg

Sweden

Prof. K. Hidaka

Japan

Secretary

Prof. I. Hela

Finland

Deputy Secretary

Ing. M. Eyriès

France

Members

   

Prof. L. M. Brekhovskikh

USSR

Capt. L. R. A. Capurro

Argentina

Prof. G. Dietrich

Germany

Mr. D. J. Rochford

Australia

1967

September - Sankt Gallen, Switzerland

XIV IAPO General Assembly

Statutes and ByLaws of the Association

The International Association of Physical Oceanography (IAPO) became the International Association for the Physical Sciences of the Ocean (IAPSO)

President

Prof. G. Dietrich

Germany

Vice-Presidents

 

Prof. A. S. Monin

USSR

Prof. M. Uda

Japan

Secretary

Dr. A. E. Maxwell

USA

Deputy Secretary

Ing. M. Eyriès

France

Members

   

Capt. L. R. A. Capurro

Argentina

Dr. D. Lal

India

Mr. D. J. Rochford

Australia

Dr. J. R. Rossiter

UK

1970

August/September - Tokyo, Japan

XV IAPSO General Assembly

President

Prof. H. Lacombe

USA

Vice-Presidents

 

Prof. A. S. Monin

USSR

Prof. K. Yoshida

Japan

Secretary

Dr. E. C. LaFond

USA

Deputy Secretary

Dr. J. R. Rossiter*

Dr. B. L. K. Somayajulu**

UK                                  * Died May 1972

India                            ** Appointed 1972

Members

   

Dr. H. L. Grant

Canada

Prof. K. Grasshoff

Germany

Prof. E. S. W. Simpson

South Africa

Adm. P. Moreira da Silva***

Brazil                         *** Appointed 1972

1975

August/September - Grenoble, France

XVI IUGG General Assembly

President

Prof. R. W. Stewart

Canada

Vice-Presidents

 

Prof. J. S. Turner

Australia

Prof. G. Siedler

Germany

Secretary

Dr. E. C. LaFond

USA

Deputy Secretary

Dr. J. M. Gieskes

USA

Members

   

Adm. P. Moreira da Silva

Brazil

Prof. E. S. W. Simpson

South Africa

Dr. B. L. K. Somayajulu

India

Dr. S. Uyeda

Japan

1979

December - Camberra, Australia

XVII IUGG General Assembly

Statutes and ByLaws of the Association

The office of Secretary has been changed to Secretary General

President

Prof. D. Lal

India

Vice-Presidents

 

Prof. W. Krauss

Germany

Akad. B. A. Nelepo

UkSSR

Secretary General

Dr. E. C. LaFond

USA

Deputy Secretary General

Dr. J. M. Gieskes

USA

Members

   

Mr. J. Crease

UK

Prof. G. B. Kullenberg

Denmark

Dr. A. Morel

France

Prof. S. H. Sharaf-el-Din

Egypt

 


Milestone Assemblies and Executive Committee members

(1983 - 2015)

1983 (August)

Hamburg, Germany

XVIII IUGG General Assembly

President

Prof. W. Krauss

Germany

Secretary General

Dr. E. C. LaFond

USA

Vice-Presidents

 

Prof. J. J. O'Brien

USA

Prof. T. Teramoto

Japan

Deputy Secretary General

Dr. J. M. Gieskes

USA

Members

   

Prof. G. B. Kullenberg

Denmark

Prof. A. Morel

France

Dr. S. Krishnaswami

India

Prof. A. S. Sarkisyan

USSR

1987 (August)

Vancouver, Canada

XIX IUGG General Assembly

President

Prof. J. J. O'Brien

USA

Secretary General

Dr. R. E. Stevenson

USA

Vice-Presidents

 

Prof. A. S. Sarkisyan

USSR

Dr. I. Jones

Australia

Deputy Secretary General

Dr. D. Cartwrigth

UK

Members

   

Prof. Y. Longfei

China

Dr. J. Sundermann

FRG

Dr. R. Krishnaswami

India

Dr. M. El-Sabh

Canada

1991 (August)

Vienna, Austria

XX IUGG General Assembly

IAPSO modified the name slightly, changing it into the International Association for the Physical Sciences of the Oceans.

President

Dr. Robin D. Muench

USA

Secretary General

Dr. R. E. Stevenson

USA

Vice-Presidents

 

Prof. Andre Morel  

France

Dr. L. Vere Shannon  

South Africa

Deputy Secretary Generals

Prof. Ben J. Cagle  

USA

Prof. Gunther Krause  

Germany

Dr. Stuart Godfrey    

Australia

Members

    

Dr. D. Halpern

USA

Prof. Jurgen Sundermann

Germany

Prof. Yoshiaki Toba  

Japan

Dr. Mohammed I. El-Sabn

Canada

Dr. Longfei Ye

China

1995 (July)

Boulder, Colorado, USA

XXI IUGG General Assembly

President

Dr. L. Vere Shannon

South Africa

Secretary General

Dr. Fred E. Camfield

USA

Vice-Presidents

 

Dr. Jürgen Sündermann

Germany

Dr. Yoshiaki Toba

Japan

Deputy Secretary General

Prof. Paola Rizzoli

USA/Italy

Members

   

Dr. David Halpern

USA

Dr. Mario Astraldi

Italy

Dr. John A. Johnson

UK

Dr. Maria Cintia Piccolo

Argentina

1999 (July)

Birmingham, England

XXII IUGG General Assembly

Statutes and ByLaws of the Association

Revised Statutes and By-Laws came into force that year introducing the office of Past President, increasing the number of members on the Executive Committee from 4 to 6, and formally creating a Nominations Committee.

President

Prof. Paola Rizzoli

USA/Italy

Secretary General

Dr. Fred E. Camfield

USA

Past-President

Dr. L. Vere Shannon

South Africa

Vice-Presidents

 

Dr. John A. Johnson

UK)

Dr. S. Krishnaswami

India

Deputy Secretary General

Dra. Maria Cintia Piccolo

Argentina

Members

     

Dr. Mario Astraldi

Italy

Prof. Dr. Kentang Le

Peoples Republic of China

Prof. Shiro Imawaki

Japan

Dr. Andrzej Zielinski

Poland

Dr. Eugene G. Morozov

Russia

Dr. Denise Smythe-Wright

UK

2003 (June-July)

Sapporo, Japan

XXIII IUGG General Assembly

President

Prof. Shiro Imawaki

Japan

Secretary General

Dr. Fred E. Camfield

USA

Past President

Prof. Paola Rizzoli

Italy

Vice-Presidents

 

Prof. S. Krishnaswami

India

Prof. Lawrence A. Mysak

Canada

Deputy Secretary General

Dra. Maria Cintia Piccolo

Argentina

Members

     

Dr. W. John Gould

UK

Prof. Dr. Kentang Le

Peoples Republic of China

Dr. John F. Middleton

Australia

Dr. Eugene G. Morozov

Russia

Dr. Claude Roy

France

Dr. Denise Smythe-Wright

UK

2007 (July)

Perugia, Italy

XXIV IUGG General Assembly

Statutes and ByLaws of the Association

Revised Statutes and By-Laws came into force that year introducing the office of Treasurer.

President

Prof. Lawrence A. Mysak

Canada

Secretary General

Prof. Johan Rodhe

Sweden

Past President

Prof. Shiro Imawaki

Japan

Treasurer

Dr. Fred Camfield

USA

Vice-Presidents

 

Dr. Denise Smythe-Wright

UK

Dr. Eugene G. Morozov

Russia

Members

     

Dr. Isabelle Ansorge

South Africa

M.S. Silvia Blanc

Argentina

Dr. W. John Gould

UK

Dr. John F. Middleton

Australia

Dr. Temel Oguz

Turkey

Dr. Stefania Sparnocchia

Italy

2011 (June-July)

Melbourne, Australia

XXV IUGG General Assembly

President

Dr. Eugene G. Morozov

Russia

Secretary General

Prof. Johan Rodhe

Sweden

Past President

Prof. Lawrence A. Mysak

Canada

Treasurer

Dr. Fred Camfield

USA

Vice-Presidents

 

Dr. Isabelle Ansorge

South Africa

Dr. Denise Smythe-Wright

UK

Members

     

M.S. Silvia Blanc

Argentina

Prof. Toshiyuki Hibiya

Japan

Dr. Chris Meinen

USA

M.App.Sc. Ken Ridgway

Australia

Dr. Satheesh Chandra Shenoi

India

Dr. Stefania Sparnocchia

Italy

 

 


Milestone Assemblies and Executive Committee members

(2015 - ...)

 2015 (June-July)   Prague, the Czech Republic   XXVI IUGG General Assembly 
 President  Dr. Denise Smythe-Wright  UK
 Secretary General  Dr. Stefania Sparnocchia  Italy
 Past President  Dr. Eugene G. Morozov  Russia
 Treasurer  M.App.Sc. Ken Ridgway  Australia
 Vice-Presidents   Dr. Isabelle Ansorge  South Africa
 Prof. Trevor McDougall  Australia
 Members       Prof. Agatha de Boer  Sweden
 Prof. Toshiyuki Hibiya  Japan
 Dr. Chris Meinen  USA
 Dr. Satheesh Chandra Shenoi  India
 Dr. Hans van Haren  the Netherlands
 Dr. Christa von Hillebrandt-Andrade  USA & Puerto Rico

 2019 (July)

 Montréal, Canada

 XXVII IUGG General Assembly
 Statutes and ByLaws of the Association
 Revised Statutes that introduced electronic voting entered into force.
 President  Prof. Trevor McDougall  Australia
 Secretary General  Dr. Stefania Sparnocchia  Italy
 Past President  Dr. Denise Smythe-Wright  UK
 Treasurer  M.App.Sc. Ken Ridgway  Australia
 Vice-Presidents   Prof. Agatha de Boer  Sweden
 Dr. Hans van Haren  the Netherlands
 Members         Prof. Edmo Campos  Brazil
 Prof. Juliet Hermes  South Africa
 Dr. Rick Lumpkin*  USA                          * Appointed December 2020, Resigned September 2021
 Dr. Yukio Masumoto  Japan
 Dr. Jae-Hun Park  Republic of Korea
 Dr. Alejandra Sanchez-Franks**  UK                          ** Appointed December 2020
 Dr. Christa von Hillebrandt-Andrade  USA & Puerto Rico
 Dr. Peter Zavialov  Russia

 


 

History of Collaborations Between SCOR and IAPSO

International organizations related to ocean science, as part of the International Council for Science (ICSU) and its predecessors have a long history, almost 100 years. Collaborations among these organizations has been important to ocean science worldwide and reflecting on past and current interactions may be instructive for the future.

The International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG) was established in Brussels, Belgium, on July 28, 1919 during the Constitutive Assembly of the International Research Council (predecessor of ICSU, which was created in 1931). At the 1919 meeting in Brussels, a Section of Physical Oceanography was formed, with Prince Albert of Monaco as its first President.  In 1967, IAPO became the International Association for the Physical Sciences of the Ocean (IAPSO) and at the 1991 General Assembly in Vienna, Austria, IAPSO made a minor name change, revising it to the International Association for the Physical Sciences of the Oceans (plural).

SCOR’s development occurred later and in a more complicated evolution. In 1954, ICSU recommended that “a small committee be appointed to consider what problems of deep sea research, of a joint biological and geophysical nature, could usefully be studied in cooperation by the International Union of Biological Sciences and the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics” (Wolff, 2010).  The five-person committee included two prominent IAPO officers, George Deacon and Harald Sverdrup, and was requested to report back to ICSU the following year.  (This committee came to be known as the ICSU Special Committee on Deep-Sea Research.) The committee reported that “we consider that an organization to promote cooperation in the oceanic sciences between IUBS and IUGG would be too limited.” (Wolff, 2010).  They recommended the establishment of a special committee of ICSU—the Special Committee for Oceanic Research—which would deal with aspects of oceanic science that could not be handled effectively by IAPO or by any other existing international body. The new committee should have representation from ICSU, IUGG (including IAPO); the International Union of Biological Sciences (IUBS), the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP), the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), and the International Geological Union (IGU). ICSU agreed with the recommendation to form the ICSU Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research.

The first SCOR meeting was held at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution on 28-30 August 1957, (See more detailed SCOR history at http://www.scor-int.org/SCOR_History.htm). One of the agenda topics was “the relationship between SCOR and other international organizations such as ICES, IAPO, IACOMS, etc.”  (Wolff, 2010).  At this meeting, SCOR approved the formation of its first five working groups (in 2014, SCOR had established 147 working groups).  These groups were largely focused on issues related to the International Geophysical Year (IGY) and the International Indian Ocean Expedition.  One of the first five groups (WG 4) was entitled “Physical Properties of Sea Water.”  (The groups were not fully launched until SCOR’s second meeting, in 1958.)  WG 4 was chaired by Håkon Mosby and other proposed members included Roland A. Cox, Carl Eckart, Arkadiĭ G. Kolesnikov, Karl E. Schleicher, Val Worthington, and Nikolai N. Zubov.  The group’s primary objectives were to appraise the accuracy of existing values of the physical constants and to encourage research leading to more accurate values. This was the first joint SCOR-IAPO working group.

SCOR and IAPO/IAPSO have continued a close working relationship since WG 4, including jointly sponsoring the following working groups and other activities:

•    Working Group 10 on Oceanographic Tables and Standards (see Lee, 1984; Morcos et al., 1990) – SCOR and IAPO (with ICES and UNESCO)—This group, better known as the Joint Panel on Oceanographic Tables and Standards (JPOTS), was formed in 1962.  Its purpose was to standardize some of the important oceanographic tables, such as the those relating chlorinity, salinity, density, conductivity, and refractive index.  As new, more accurate, measurement techniques became available, the equation of state of seawater had to be refined.  Upon the recommendation of JPOTS, the Practical Salinity Scale and 1980 International Equation of State of Seawater were adopted in 1982 by oceanographers internationally.  SCOR and IAPSO are combining their efforts to update the equation of state of seawater, through the work of SCOR/IAPSO Working Group 127 (see below).
•    Working Group 15 on Photosynthetic Radiant Energy – SCOR and IAPO (with UNESCO)
•    Working Group 21 on Continuous Current Velocity Measurements – SCOR and IAPO (with UNESCO)
•    Working Group 27 on Deep Sea Tides – IAPO and SCOR (with UNESCO)
•    Working Group 28 on Ocean-Atmosphere Interactions – SCOR and IAPSO (with IAMAP)
•    Working Group 34 on Internal Dynamics of the Ocean – SCOR and IAPSO
•    Working Group 35 on Methods of Quantitative Ecology of Coral Reefs – SCOR and IAPSO
•    Working Group 38 on Ocean Processes in the Antarctic – SCOR and IAPSO (with SCAR)
•    Working Group 42 on Pollution in the Baltic – SCOR, ICES, IAPSO, IABO
•    Working Group 43 on Oceanography Related to GATE – SCOR, IAMAP, IAPSO
•    Working Group 46 on River Inputs to Ocean Systems – SCOR, ECOR, IAHS, ACMRR, UNESCO, CMG, IAPSO, IABO
•    Working Group 48 on The Influence of the Ocean on Climate – SCOR and IAPSO
•    Working Group 49 on Mathematical Modelling of Oceanic Processes – SCOR and IAPSO
•    Working Group 50 on Biological Effects of Ocean Variability – SCOR, ACMRR, IAPSO, IABO
•    Working Group 53 on Evolution of the South Atlantic – SCOR, CMG, ICG, IAPSO, IABO
•    Working Group 55 on Prediction of El Nino – SCOR, IAMAP, IAPSO, ACMRR
•    Working Group 57 on Coastal and Estuarine Regimes – SCOR, IAPSO, ECOR, UNESCO
•    Working Group 58 on Arctic Ocean Heat Budget – SCOR, IAPSO
•    Working Group 64 on Oceanic Atoll Drilling – SCOR, CMG, IAPSO, UNESCO
•    IAPSO/SCOR Working Group 121 on Ocean Mixing
•    SCOR/LOICZ/IAPSO Working Group 122 on Mechanisms of Sediment Retention in Estuaries
•    SCOR/IAPSO Working Group 127 on Thermodynamics and Equation of State of Seawater
•    SCOR/IAPSO Working Group 129 on Deep Ocean Exchanges with the Shelf
•    SCOR/IAPSO Working Group 133: OceanScope
•    SCOR/WCRP/IAPSO Working Group 136: Climatic Importance of the Greater Agulhas System
•    SCOR/IOC Committee on Climate Change and the Ocean

•    SCOR/IAPSO Working Group 145: Chemical Speciation Modelling in Seawater to Meet 21st Century Needs (MARCHEMSPEC)

 

SCOR reformed its Executive Committee in 19__ to include the presidents of IABO, IAPSO, and IAMAS as ex officio members.  IAPSO representatives have attended nearly every SCOR annual meeting in the past 20 years.

IAPSO has been the most frequent co-sponsor of SCOR working groups since SCOR was formed, but there was a hiatus in IAPSO participation in SCOR working groups between WGs 64 (late 1970s) and WG 121 (formed in 2002) for unknown reasons.  The most recent working groups with IAPSO have involved joint approval of the terms of reference and memberships.  SCOR and IAPSO jointly submitted proposals and received grants from U.S. agencies for conferences of Working Groups 121 and 129.  (It is difficult for IAPSO to equally fund projects because it cannot charge dues and depends on a relatively small financial allocation from IUGG.) Two recent joint working groups, WGs 127 and 129, resulted from a process in which IAPSO identified important topics, stimulated the development of working group proposals, and co-approved group memberships and terms of reference with SCOR. SCOR does not limit its physical oceanography working groups to ideas suggested by IAPSO and IAPSO works with other organizations, but it is clear that the SCOR-IAPSO partnership has advanced important physical oceanography topics in ways that would have been difficult for either organization to achieve alone.  The past interactions provide a model for the future of SCOR cooperation with IAPSO, as well as with other ICSU associations and unions.

SCOR has also participated with IAPSO by holding its meetings in conjunction with IAPSO assemblies, in 1970, 2001, and 2005. Many joint IAPSO-SCOR working groups have held special sessions at IAPSO assemblies and/or have held their regular meetings in conjunction with an assembly.


References
Lee, A.  1984.  The ICES Hydrography Committee: A review of its activities since 1945.  Rapp. P.-v. Réun. Cons. Int. Explor. Mer. 185:7-29.
Morcos, D., A. Poisson, and O. Mamayev. 1990. Joint Panel on Oceanographic Tables and Standards: 25 Years of Achievements under the Umbrella of International Organizations. Pp. 344-356 in Ocean Sciences: Their History and Relation to Man. Proceedings of the 4th International Congress on the History of Oceanography W. Lenz and M. Deacon (eds.). Deutsche Hydrographische Zeitschrift. Hamburg, Germany.
Wolff, T.  2010.  The Birth and First Years of SCOR (Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research).